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Diagnosis can, in some cases, be confirmed using an in-office immunochromatographic test kit intended for detection of fecal CPV antigen.
However, fecal antigen is detectable only for a short time after infection; false-negative results are common.
Differential diagnoses include other causes of profound depression, leukopenia, and GI signs. Salmonellosis and infections with feline leukemia virus FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus should be considered.
FPV infections combined with various salmonellae or feline calicivirus cause much more severe disease than FPV alone. Successful treatment of acute cases of feline panleukopenia requires vigorous fluid therapy and supportive nursing care in the isolation unit.
Electrolyte disturbances eg, hypokalemia , hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, anemia, and opportunistic secondary infections often develop in severely affected cats.
Anticipation of these possibilities, close monitoring, and prompt intervention can improve outcome. In addition to crystalloid infusion, transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma helps support plasma oncotic pressure and provides clotting factors to severely ill, hypoproteinemic kittens.
It also provides some anti-FPV antibodies. Whole blood is preferable for the occasional cat that is severely anemic. Parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is indicated; however, nephrotoxic drugs eg, aminoglycosides must be avoided until dehydration has been fully corrected.
Because of the nephrotoxic potential of the gentamicin , urinary protein dipstick findings, sequential urine sediments, and serum SDMA or creatinine should be monitored.
There are single antibiotic agents, albeit more expensive, that are effective against the anaerobes and gram-negative aerobes that are the most important bacteria in feline panleukopenia.
These include third-generation cephalosporins eg, ceftiofur, cefotaxime and extended penicillins eg, piperacillin. Antiemetic therapy eg, maropitant, ondansetron or metoclopramide usually provides some relief and allows earlier enteral feeding of soft, easily digested food.
Maropitant is the first-choice anti-emetic. In severely affected cats it can be combined with ondansetron. Feeding little and often should be commenced as early as possible, even in the face of mild, intermittent, persistent vomiting.
Feeding promotes healing of the GI mucosa and re-establishment of an effective mucosal barrier. Cats with severe vomiting should not be fed until the vomiting is better controlled.
Parenteral nutrition is indicated only for the most severely affected cases, and its use should not delay vigorous attempts to start enteral feeding.
Although rFeIFN is not approved by the FDA for this purpose and has not been proven effective in feline panleukopenia, it is approved and effective in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis.
Passive immunotherapy using immune serum from solidly immune cats, or using a commercial product raised in horses, is widely practiced in some countries.
There is limited evidence of treatment efficacy, however. Excellent inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines that provide solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention of feline panleukopenia.
Most authorities recommend that kittens receive two or three modified-live vaccine doses SC, 3—4 weeks apart. The first vaccination is usually given at 6—9 weeks of age.
The last dose of the initial vaccination series should not be administered before the kitten is 16 weeks old, to allow time for interfering maternal antibodies to wane so they do not inactivate the modified-live vaccine virus.
A followup vaccine dose at 26—52 weeks is a new recommendation, because some kittens have residual interfering antibodies, even at 16 weeks, sufficient to prevent successful immunization.
Exposure to virus should be avoided until 1 week after the initial vaccination series has been completed.
FIV may also be transmitted from pregnant females to their offspring in utero; however, this vertical transmission is considered to be relatively rare, based on the small number of FIV-infected kittens and adolescents.
Risk factors for infection include male sex, adulthood, and outdoor access. Higher rates of infection in males than females occurs due to biting being more frequently engaged in by males defending their territory.
The initial stage, or acute phase, is accompanied by mild symptoms such as lethargy , anorexia , fever , and lymphadenopathy. Here the cat demonstrates no noticeable symptoms for a variable length of time.
Some cats stay in this latent stage for only a few months, but for some it can last for years. Factors that influence the length of the asymptomatic stage include the pathogenicity of the infecting virus and FIV subtype A—E , the age of the cat, and exposure to other pathogens.
Finally, the cat progresses into the final stage known as the feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome FAIDS stage , wherein the cat is extremely susceptible to secondary diseases that inevitably are the cause of death.
Veterinarians will check a cat's history, look for clinical signs, and possibly administer a blood test for FIV antibodies.
This testing identifies those cats that carry the FIV antibody but does not detect the actual virus.
False positives occur when the cat carries the antibody which is harmless but does not carry the actual virus. The most frequent occurrence of this is when kittens are tested after ingesting the antibodies from mother's milk, and when testing cats that have been previously vaccinated for FIV.
For this reason, neither kittens under eight weeks nor cats that have been previously vaccinated are tested. Kittens and young cats that test positive for the FIV antibody may test negative at a later time due to seroreversion , provided they have never been infected with FIV and have never been immunized with the FIV vaccine.
Cats that have been vaccinated will test positive for the FIV antibody for the rest of their lives owing to seroconversion , even though they are not infected.
Therefore, testing of strays or adopted cats is inconclusive, since it is impossible to know whether or not they have been vaccinated in the past.
For these reasons, a positive FIV antibody test by itself should never be used as a criterion for euthanasia. Tests can be performed in a vet's office with results in minutes, allowing for quick consultation.
Early detection helps maintain the cat's health and prevents spreading infection to other cats. With proper care, infected cats can live long and healthy lives.
The absence of any observed adverse events in several animal species suggests that the product has a very low toxicity profile.
Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of extraneous materials.
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Word Lists. Choose your language. English—Chinese Simplified. It persists long after evidence of the original body secretion has faded away, and can be transported long distances.
Like all parvoviruses, FPLV is extremely resistant to inactivation and can survive for longer than one year in a suitable environment.
Infection occurs when the virus enters the body through the mouth or nose. Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs.
The clinical manifestations of FPLV are variable based on the dose of the virus, the age of the cat, potential breed predispositions, and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination.
Clinical signs usually develop in 4—6 days after exposure, but can show in 2—14 days. Clinical laboratory findings include but are not limited to :  .
Other signs include: fever, loss of skin elasticity due to dehydration, abdominal pain, sternal recumbency with splayed legs and head droop, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis.
Infection in pregnant cats can result in fetal resorption , mummification, abortion, or stillbirth of neonates.
A presumptive clinical diagnosis of FPLV can be made for kittens with appropriate signalment, history, clinical findings and the history of no prior vaccination.
The clinical diagnosis is usually supported by documenting parvovirus antigen in feces by ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR polymerase chain reaction assays.
The availability of validated assays varies by country but is becoming more common. These are only approved and licensed for detecting canine parvovirus , but it is generally known that they also detect FPL viral antigen in feline feces.
These tests are used extra-label because they allow rapid, inexpensive, in-house detection of the virus. In an unvaccinated cat, the presence of antibodies against FPV indicates that the cat either has the disease or has had the disease in the past.
Elevated IgM titers or greater indicate active infection and if clinical signs are obvious diarrhea, panleukopenia the prognosis is poor.
Elevated IgG titers or greater in a cat with clinical signs indicates a better prognosis. Differential diagnoses include salmonellosis , enteric toxins, feline immunodeficiency virus FIV , feline leukemia virus FeLV , cryptosporidiosis , pancreatitis , septicaemia with acute endotoxemia , toxoplasmosis , peritonitis , and lymphoma.
To contain the virus, cats with suspected or diagnosed FPLV should be kept in isolation. It requires immediate, aggressive treatment if the cat is to survive, as it can be fatal in less than 24 hours.
Several articles and publications provide guidance for rescuers and veterinarians for optimizing outcomes. Treatment involves: . Feeding should be continued as long as possible.
In a disease outbreak, unvaccinated kittens or adults can be given anti-FPV serum containing FPV antibodies injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneal.
This may provide protection for 2—4 weeks. Several studies have shown feline recombinant interferon-omega is effective in the treatment of parvoviral enteritis in dogs   and also inhibits replication of FPV in cell culture.
So far no data are available on its efficacy in FPV-infected cats.